Study Guide For Test #2----Chapters Two and Three Return To Main Page
Complete each sentence or statement.
1. ____________________ data consists of numbers that might be used in arithmetic operations.
2. ____________________ data is composed of letters, symbols, and numerals that will not be used in arithmetic operations.
3. To work with sounds and pictures, a computer must ____________________ colors, notes, and instrument sounds into 1s and 0s.
4. MB is the abbreviation for ____________________.
5. The ALU stands for ______________________________.
6. The microprocessor ____________________ is a timing device that sets the pace for executing instructions.
7. ____________________ is special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the motherboard.
8. In RAM, microscopic electronic parts called ____________________ hold the bits that represent data.
9. RAM is ____________________, which means that it requires electrical power to hold data.
10. A storage ____________________ is the disk, CD, tape, paper, or other substance that contains data.
11. A storage ____________________ is the mechanical apparatus that records and retrieves data from a storage medium.
12. In Figure 2-14, the dark spots on the CD surface are called ____________________.
13. In Figure 2-14, the lighter, non-pitted surface areas of the CD are called ____________________.
14. A(n) ____________________ disk is a round piece of flexible mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide and sealed inside a protective casing.
15. A tape ____________________ is a copy of the data on a hard disk, which is stored on magnetic tape and used to restore lost data.
16. ____________________ refers to the process of moving data off a primary storage device when that data is not accessed frequently.
17. Within a computer, data travels from one component to another over circuits called a data ____________________.
18. The segment of the data bus that extends between RAM and peripheral devices is called the ____________________ bus.
19. A(n) ____________________ slot is a long, narrow socket on the motherboard into which you can plug an expansion card.
20. A(n) ____________________ card is a small circuit board that provides a computer with the ability to control a storage device, an input device, or an output device.
21. A(n) ____________________ module contains any data that is necessary for a task, but not supplied by the user.
22. Computer ____________________ write the instructions for the computer programs and support modules that become the components of a computer software product.
23. Computer languages help programmers produce ____________________ code, which defines the software environment in every detail.
24. A(n) ____________________ converts one instruction at a time while the program is running.
25. The method of using an interpreter to convert high-level instructions into machine language is more common with Web-based programs called ____________________.
26. A(n) ____________________ user interface provides a way to point and click a mouse to select menu options and manipulate graphical objects that are displayed on the screen.
27. Many operating systems provide helpful tools called ____________________ that you can use to control and customize your computer equipment and work environment.
28. A(n) ____________________ operating system expects to deal with one set of input devices—those that can be controlled by one user at a time.
29. A(n) ____________________ operating system is designed to deal with input, output, and processing requests from many users.
30. DOS stands for ______________________________.
31. A(n) ____________________ checker reads through your document and points out incomplete sentences, run-on sentences, and verbs that don't agree with nouns.
32. A document looks more formal if it is fully ____________________, rather than if it has an uneven or ragged right margin.
33. Page ____________________ refers to the physical position of each element on a page.
34. A mail ____________________ automatically creates personalized letters by combining the information in a mailing list with a form letter.
35. A(n) ____________________ is a grid-like structure that can hold text or pictures.
36. You use spreadsheet software to create an on-screen ____________________.
37. Video ____________________ software provides a set of tools for transferring video footage from a camcorder to a computer, clipping out unwanted footage, assembling video segments in any sequence, and adding special visual effects.
38. ____________________ games, such as Age of Empires, have their roots in chess.
39. ____________________ is designed to help several people collaborate on a single project using network or Internet connections.
40. Some operating systems provide a(n) ____________________ routine that deletes a software application's files from various directories on your computer's hard disk.
Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
Level 1 cache
Level 2 cache
____ 41. Uses 16 bits and provides codes for 65,000 characters
____ 42. High-speed memory located on a separate chip from the processor
____ 43. Type of device that works with discrete data or digits
____ 44. Requires only seven bits for each character
____ 45. A temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system
____ 46. Built into a processor chip
____ 47. Requiring electrical power to hold data
____ 48. Type of device that works with continuous data
Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
____ 49. Marketed under a "try before you buy" policy
____ 50. Contains any data that is necessary for a task but that is not supplied by the user
____ 51. C++, Java, and COBOL are examples
____ 52. Converts one instruction at a time while the program is running
____ 53. Translates all of a program's instructions as a single batch
____ 54. Copyrighted software that is available at no cost
____ 55. Provides an auxiliary set of instructions that can be used in conjunction with the main software program
____ 56. Hardwired within a microprocessor's circuits
57. What does a motherboard do?
58. What are benchmarks?
59. What is cache?
60. What is the function of the ROM BIOS?
61. Give some examples of storage devices.
62. What is a read-write head?
63. What can you do if you run out of drive bays?
64. What is a head crash?
65. What is phase change technology?
66. What is an expansion port?
67. What does software consist of?
68. Provide an example of a data module.
69. Provide four examples of the properties of an element in a software environment.
70. Briefly describe how an interpreter works.
71. Provide four examples of resources, in the context of a computer system.
72. What is document production software?
73. What are the three most popular types of document production software?
74. Why are readability formulas used?
75. What is frame-oriented software?
76. What is a copyright?
77. Can you upgrade your computer's microprocessor with a faster one? Provide two reasons for your argument.
78. What is the difference between a CRT and an LCD?
79. Give two reasons why a spelling checker cannot substitute for a thorough proofread.
80. What is the difference between vertical market software and horizontal market software? Provide at least one example of each kind of software.
Study Guide For Test #2----Chapters Two and Three
5. arithmetic logic unit
30. Disk Operating System
57. The motherboard is the computer's main circuit board and it houses all essential chips and provides connecting circuitry between them.
58. Benchmarks are the results of tests that are run to gauge the overall speed of a microprocessor, which can then be compared to the results for other microprocessors.
59. Cache is special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the motherboard.
60. The ROM BIOS tell the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM; once the operating system is loaded, the computer can understand your input, display output, run software, and access your data.
61. Storage devices include floppy disk drives, Zip drives, hard disk drives, tape drives, CD drives, and DVD drives.
62. A read-write head mechanism is in a disk drive and is used to read and write the magnetized particles that represent data on a disk.
63. If you run out of bays, you can purchase standalone, external drives that sit outside of the computer case and are connected to the computer by a cable.
64. If a read-write head runs into a dust particle or some other contaminant on the disk, it might cause a head crash, which damages some of the data on the disk.
65. Phase change technology is used by a CD-RW drive and CD-RW disks to alter the crystal structure on the disk surface, changing the structure from light to dark and back again many times, making it possible to record and modify data much like on a hard disk.
66. An expansion port is any connector that passes data in and out of a computer or peripheral device.
67. Software consists of computer programs, support modules, and data modules that work together to provide a computer with the instructions and data necessary for carrying out a specific type of task.
68. In word processing software, spelling is checked by comparing the words in a document with the words in a dictionary file of correctly spelled words; this dictionary file is a data module that is supplied by the software, not by the user.
69. Some examples include the element's shape, its color, its behavior, and where it appears on the screen.
70. An interpreter reads the first instruction in a script, converts it into machine language, and then sends it to the microprocessor. After the instruction is executed, the interpreter converts the next instruction, and so on.
71. The processor is a resource, and RAM, storage space, and peripherals are also resources.
72. Document production software assists you with composing, editing, designing, printing, and electronically publishing documents.
73. The three most popular types of document production software are word processing, desktop publishing, and Web authoring.
74. Readability formulas are used to analyze the reading level of your document, to find out if your writing matches your target audience, based on sentence length and vocabulary.
75. Frame-oriented software allows you to divide each page into several rectangular-shaped frames that you can fill with either text or pictures; desktop publishing software tends to be frame-oriented.
76. A copyright is a form of legal protection that grants the author of an original work an exclusive right to copy, sell, distribute, and modify that work, except under special circumstances described by copyright laws.
77. It is technically possible to upgrade your computer's microprocessor, but computer owners rarely do so. One reason is the cost. The price of the latest, greatest microprocessor can often get you more than halfway to buying an entirely new computer system. Technical factors also discourage upgrades. A microprocessor can operate at full efficiency only if all of the components in the computer can also handle the faster speeds.
78. CRT technology uses gun-like mechanisms to direct beams of electrons toward the screen and activate individual dots of color that form an image; CRT monitors offer an inexpensive and dependable computer display. An LCD produces an image by manipulating light within a layer of liquid crystal cells.
79. Proper nouns and scientific, medical, and technical words are likely to be flagged as misspelled, even if you spell them correctly, because they do not appear in the spelling checker's dictionary. Also, if a document contains the phrase "a pear of shoes," even though you meant to use "pair" rather than "pear," the spelling checker will not catch the mistake because "pear" is a valid word in its dictionary. Furthermore, the spelling checker will not help if you have trouble deciding whether to use "there" or "their," "it's" or "its," or "too" or "to."
80. Vertical market software is designed to automate specialized tasks in a specific market or business. One example is patient management and billing software that is specially designed for hospitals. Horizontal market software, on the other hand, is generic software that can be used by just about any kind of business. Payroll software, accounting software, and project management software are examples of horizontal market software.