Study Guide for Test #3 Chapters 4, 5, and 6 Return To Main Page
Complete each sentence or statement.
1. A(n) ____________________ file is defined as a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium.
2. A filename ____________________ is an optional file identifier that is separated from the main filename by a period.
3. A file's ____________________ is the arrangement of data in a file, and the coding scheme that is used to represent the data.
4. Most software programs have what is called a(n) ____________________ file format that is used to store files.
5. An operating system maintains a list of files called a(n) ____________________ for each storage disk, tape, CD, or DVD.
6. A root directory can be subdivided into smaller lists, called ____________________.
7. File ____________________ is usually measured in bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes.
8. File ____________________ encompasses any procedure that helps you organize your computer-based files so that you can find and use them more efficiently
9. Most operating systems provide file ____________________ utilities that give you the big picture of the files you have stored on your disks and help you work with them.
10. A file management utility should make it easy to find what you are looking for by drilling down through your computer's ____________________ of folders and files.
11. The ____________________ process creates the equivalent of electronic storage bins by dividing a disk into tracks, and then further dividing each track into sectors.
12. Computer operating systems provide formatting ____________________ that you can use to reformat some storage devices—typically floppy and hard disks.
13. A computer ____________________ is a set of program instructions that attaches itself to a file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other files.
14. A(n) ____________________ is essentially a miniature program that usually contains legitimate instructions to automate document and worksheet production.
15. ____________________ software is a set of utility programs that looks for and eradicates a wide spectrum of problems, such as viruses, Trojan horses, and worms.
16. A virus ____________________ usually arrives as an e-mail message containing dire warnings about a supposedly new virus that is on the loose.
17. A(n) ____________________ is a copy of one or more files that has been made in case the original files become damaged.
18. You ____________________ data from a backup to the original storage medium or its replacement.
19. A(n) ____________________ disk is a floppy disk or CD that contains the operating system files needed to boot your computer without accessing the hard disk.
20. A(n) ____________________ CD contains the operating system files needed to boot the computer, plus all of the Windows and application software needed to restore your computer to the state it was in when you bought it.
21. ____________________ is the distance between wave peaks.
22. A communications ____________________, or link, is a physical path or a frequency for a signal transmission.
23. RF signals are sent and received by a(n) ____________________ (a combination of a transmitter and a receiver) that is equipped with an antenna.
24. Radio and microwave transmissions cannot bend around the surface of the earth to reach far-flung towers, so earth-orbiting communications ____________________ play an important role in long-distance communications.
25. Each device that is connected to a network is referred to as a(n) ____________________.
26. A(n) ____________________ is a device that converts the signals from a computer into signals that can travel over a wide area network, such as the telephone system or the Internet.
27. A(n) ____________________ is a device—found on LANs and on the Internet—that amplifies and regenerates signals so that they can retain the necessary strength to reach their destinations.
28. A(n) ____________________ is a parcel of data that is sent across a computer network.
29. ____________________ switching essentially establishes a private link between one telephone and another for the duration of a call.
30. In a technology called ____________________ switching, a message is divided into several packets that can be routed independently to their destination to avoid out-of-service or congested links.
31. In the context of networks, the term "protocol," or ____________________ protocol, refers to the set of rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another.
32. Protocols help two network devices negotiate and establish communications through a process called ____________________.
33. A(n) ____________________, or "internet" (with a lowercase "i"), is a network that is composed of many smaller networks.
34. A(n) ____________________ is a network that uses TCP/IP protocols and provides many of the same services as the Internet, but is typically owned by a private business and its use is limited to the employees of that business.
35. A(n) ____________________ is similar to a private intranet, except that it allows password-protected access by authorized outside users.
36. A(n) ____________________ network uses radio frequencies instead of cables to send data from one network node to another.
37. A(n) ____________________ network treats every computer as an "equal" so that workstations can run local applications and also provide network resources, such as file access.
38. A(n) ____________________ address is a series of numbers, such as 204.127.55.001.
39. A domain name request is routed through your ISP to your designated domain name ____________________, which then searches through its database to find a corresponding IP address.
40. Personal ____________________ software is designed to analyze and control incoming and outgoing packets.
41. You can click an underlined word or phrase called a(n) ____________________ link in a Web page to access related documents.
42. HTML is an example of a(n) ____________________ language in which authors mark up their documents by inserting tags that specify how the document should appear when displayed on a computer screen or printed.
43. The original HTML specifications were revised several times by the ____________________.
44. ____________________ tags change the appearance of text and work much like the formatting options in a word processor that create bold and italic text, adjust the size of text, change the color of text and backgrounds, and so on.
45. ____________________ tags specify how to display graphics, sound clips, or videos.
46. The <HTML> </HTML> tag is in the category of ____________________ tags.
47. ____________________, published in November 1993, was one of the earliest graphical browsers.
48. A(n) ____________________ is an abstract concept that represents one end of a connection.
49. A(n) ____________________ protocol generally allows one request and response per session.
50. Web ____________________ software provides tools specifically designed to enter and format Web page text, graphics, and links.
51. CSS stands for ________________________________________.
52. A(n) ____________________ GIF is a graphic file that consists of a sequence of frames or related images.
53. A(n) ____________________ link automatically opens a pre-addressed e-mail form that can be filled in and sent.
54. Each of the links within an image map is sometimes referred to as a(n) ____________________.
55. ____________________ is the follow-up version to HTML 4.
57. A(n) ____________________ error occurs when a browser or server cannot execute one or more statements in a script.
58. ____________________ is typically used to describe financial transactions that are conducted over a computer network.
59. ____________________ is an extension of HTTP that simply encrypts the text of an HTTP message before it is sent.
60. An electronic ____________________ is software that stores and handles the information that a customer typically submits when finalizing an e-commerce purchase.
Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
physical storage model
logical storage model
____ 61. Main directory of a disk
____ 62. Describes what happens on disks
____ 63. Helps you form a mental picture of the way in which your files are stored
____ 64. Keeps track of the names and locations of files that reside on a storage medium
____ 65. A group of sectors on a disk
____ 66. Utility you use to rearrange files on a disk so they are stored in contiguous clusters
____ 67. File identifier separated from the filename by a period
____ 68. File specification
Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
____ 69. A bundle of extremely thin tubes of glass
____ 70. Consists of a copper wire encased in a non-conducting insulator, a foil shield, a woven metal outer shield, and a plastic outer coating
____ 71. Provide data transport for large corporate networks and as part of the Internet backbone
____ 72. Receives a signal, amplifies it, and then transmits the signal from a satellite to a ground station
____ 73. Also called radio waves
____ 74. The transmission capacity of a communications channel
____ 75. Contains four pairs of copper wires independently insulated and then wound around each other
____ 76. Carries data signals only for short distances and with a clear line of sight
Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
____ 77. Use this type of tag to specify the basic setup for a Web page
____ 78. Small chunk of data generated by a Web server
____ 79. Acts as a template to control the layout and design of Web pages
____ 80. The best image format for logos and banners
____ 81. Use this type of tag to adjust text size, for example
____ 82. A sophisticated approach to cookie security
____ 83. The best image format for scanned images
____ 84. Protocol used to get Web resources to your desktop
85. What is the Windows Startup Disk?
86. When using a software application to open a file, what kinds of files does the program display?
87. Give two uses for the file date.
88. What is the difference between the Save and Save As options?
89. What does the physical storage model describe?
90. What is the File Allocation Table?
91. What is file shredder software?
92. What are Denial of Service attacks?
93. What is a boot disk?
94. What is a recovery CD?
95. List six of the most common links that computer networks use for carrying data.
96. What is the most practical use of infrared light with respect to personal computers?
97. What happens if a device's physical address is not in a format that can be used by a particular network?
98. The terms "host" and "server" are often used interchangeably, but what is the distinction between them?
99. Provide three examples of the most common servers on today's networks.
100. Briefly explain how the asynchronous protocol works.
101. Define HomePLC network.
102. Define 10BaseT network.
103. Define client/server network.
104. What does the utility in Figure 5-16 do?
105. Upon what does the number of socket connections that a port can handle depend?
106. What is a server farm?
107. What is a cookie?
108. What is a Web page header?
109. When XML is described as being "extensible," what does this mean?
110. What are the most popular scripting languages? Name two other alternative scripting languages as well.
111. Define client-side script.
112. Name a way in which Java applets differ from ActiveX controls.
113. What is B2G e-commerce?
114. What is an online shopping cart?
Study Guide for Test #3 Chapters 4, 5, and 6
19. emergency boot
World Wide Web Consortium
51. cascading style sheet
54. hot spot
85. The Windows Startup Disk is a type of boot disk that loads not only the operating system but also the CD-ROM drivers necessary for your computer to access files on the CD-ROM.
86. When using a software application to open a file, the program displays any files that have the filename extension for its native file format.
87. The file date is useful if you have created several versions of a file and want to make sure that you know which version is the most recent. It can also come in handy if you download several updates of player software, and you want to make sure that you install the latest version.
88. The Save As option allows you to select a name and storage device for a file, whereas the Save option simply displays the latest version of a file under its current name and at its current location.
89. The physical storage model describes what actually happens on the disks and in the circuits.
90. If your computer uses the FAT32 file system, then the special file that maintains a list of clusters and keeps track of which ones are empty and which ones hold data is known as the File Allocation Table.
91. File shredder software overwrites empty sectors with random 1s and 0s to delete data from a disk in such a way that no one can ever read it.
92. Denial of Service attacks happen when worms generate a lot of activity on a network by flooding it with useless traffic—enough traffic to overwhelm the network's processing capability and essentially bring all communications to a halt.
93. A boot disk is a floppy disk or CD that contains the operating system files needed to boot your computer without accessing the hard disk.
94. A recovery CD contains the operating system files needed to boot the computer, plus all of the Windows and application software needed to restore the computer to the state it was in when you bought it.
95. The most common include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, radio waves, microwaves, satellites, infrared light, and laser beams.
96. Its most practical use seems to be for transmitting data between a notebook computer and a printer, or between a PDA and a desktop computer.
97. The device will be assigned a logical address.
98. "Host" is more commonly used in the context of the Internet; "server" is used both in the context of the Internet and LANs.
99. E-mail servers, communications servers, file servers, and Web servers are some of the most common servers on today's networks.
100. The rules for asynchronous protocol require the transmitting computer to send a start bit that indicates the beginning of a packet. Data is then transmitted as a series of bytes—the number of bytes is specified by the protocol. A stop bit marks the end of the data.
101. A HomePLC network uses a building's existing power line cables (PLCs) to connect network nodes.
102. A 10BaseT network is techie jargon for an Ethernet network that uses a type of twisted-pair cable called "10BaseT" and transmits data at 10 Mbps.
103. A client/server network contains one or more computers configured with server software, and other computers, configured with client software, which access the servers.
104. The utility, Traceroute, records a packet's path—including intermediate routers—from your computer to its destination.
105. The number of socket connections that a port can handle depends on the server's memory and operating system, but at a minimum, hundreds of requests can be handled at the same time.
106. A server farm is a group of multiple servers used to handle the thousands of requests that come in each second to a large volume site.
107. A cookie is a small chunk of data generated by a Web server and stored in a text file on your computer.
108. A Web page header is simply a subtitle that appears in a font that is a different size or color than the normal text in the paragraphs that appear on the page.
109. This means that individual users and groups of users can create their own tags.
111. A client-side script consists of scripting statements embedded in an HTML document that are executed by the browser, which must have the capability to deal with that scripting language.
112. ActiveX controls are installed on your computer's hard disk, whereas Java applets are simply downloaded into memory and run. Also, Java applets work on many computer platforms, but ActiveX controls only work on Windows PCs using the Internet Explorer browser.
113. B2G e-commerce aims to help businesses sell to governments.
114. An online shopping cart is a cyberspace version of the good old metal cart that you wheel around a store and fill up with merchandise.